Laboratory medicine

Laboratory medicine

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Drew DS 360 : HbA1c measurement

The Drew DS360 is intended for the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in blood samples.

The Drew DS360 is intended for the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in blood samples.  The system’s high throughput and automated primary tube sampling, low maintenance, easy to use interface and full color touch screen makes this an ideal addition for the main laboratory, clinic or satellite laboratory settings.

  • Reference method of ion-exchange HPLC
  • HbA1c results in 3.5 minutes
  • Immediate labile fraction removal with no need for external incubation
  • Simple to use with full color touch screen
  • 36 position auto sampler
  • Detects presence of HbS, HbC and HbD
  • Optimized to minimize interference from carbamylation, lipemia and labile A1C

Fig. Drew DS360 for measurement of HbA1c
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Erba Elite 5: Hematology analyzer

Erba Elite 5: Product description

The Erba Elite 5 is an advanced 5 part differential analyser with 24 parameters.

The Erba Elite 5 is an advanced 5 part differential analyzer with 24 parameters. It is a compact system that features the power of advanced diode based laser technology and hydrodynamic focusing.
  • 24 parameters with 2 scatter-grams & 2 histograms
  • 60 tests / hour
  • Electrical impedance method and advanced SRV technology
  • Unique ZAP technology with each analysis cycle
  • Open and close tube system with automatic sample rotor
  • Multiple choice of languages
  • Optional auto sampler
  • Low-maintenance needed
  • User-friendly software, connectable to LIS

Fig. Erba Elite 5 Hematology analyzer

Erba XL 1000 : Automated clinical chemistry analyzer

Erba XL 1000 : Product description

Automated High Throughput Random Access Analyzer, it offers continuous sample loading facility using racks.

Automated high throughput random access analyzer, it offers continuous sample loading facility using racks. Contrary to other automatic analyzers, the sample loading is automatic instead of manual thereby enhancing precision.

  • Throughput of upto 1040 tests/hour with ISE- 800 photometric tests/ hr and 240 tests/ hr with ISE
  • Permanent hard glass cuvettes – requiring no replacement for upto 4-5 years
  • Direct ISE measurement for Na/K/Cl/Li (optional)
  • Auto re-run, auto dilution, reflex testing
  • Probes with clot detection & Vertical Obstruction Detection feature
  • Low reagent/test consumption -requires reagent volume of just 150 µL, thereby proving to be cost effective for laboratories
  • Extensive Quality Control menu  (L-J chart, twin plot, QC rules)

Fig. Erba XL-1000 system
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Tuesday, April 26, 2016

VITROS® 350 Chemistry System: VITROS® MicroSlide Technology

VITROS® MicroSlide Technology

High-quality results, minimal operator interventions, exceptional ease of use and 95% reportable result efficiency with innovative layered dry slide technology

Providing fast, accurate results is a necessity—even for small labs—with growing pressure to reduce errors and cut costs in the midst of increased demands and significant staffing shortages. The VITROS® 350 System is a compact chemistry system designed to be efficient, dependable, and, above all, easy to use as a primary, STAT, or backup system.

VITROS® MicroSlide Technology is one of the 5 enabling technologies that power the transformational performance of our VITROS® diagnostic instruments in labs around the world.

Working priniciple:

VITROS® MicroSlide Technology offers an entire integrated test environment on a thin piece of film. Spreading, masking, scavenger, and reagent layers are discretely combined on one postage-stamp-sized slide to produce first-class precision and accuracy. When plasma, serum, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid come into contact with these dry chemical layers, a spectral reaction occurs, which can be measured by the system. This layered dry slide technology enables separate reaction domains—maximizing each step for exceptional assay performance.

Fig. VITROS® 350 Chemistry System
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DCA Vantage Analyzer: Features and benefit

DCA Vantage Analyzer

Drive diabetic patient compliance with trusted, clinically proven results

One system does it all. Detect* and manage diabetes with HbA1c or diagnose early kidney disease with albumin:creatinine ratio (A:C) testing using Siemens Healthcare's DCA Vantage® Analyzer. No sample or reagent preparation is required.
  • Add a 1µL fingerstick sample for HbA1c or a 40 µL urine sample for A:C to applicable test cartridge.
  • Scan test cartridge barcode.
  • Load cartridge into analyzer.
  • The analyzer does the rest.
Results are generated in minutes allowing for immediate consultation during the patient visit.

Monitor glycemic control and diabetes complications using an analyzer designed to make consultations easier. Fast, actionable test results enable you to determine the effectiveness of a treatment plan, make therapeutic adjustments with confidence, and be more certain whether patients are complying with your recommendations. 

Monitor glycemic control
  • HbA1c from a small (1 µL) whole blood sample in 6 minutes
  • Flexible reporting of HbA1c% (NGSP, JDS, and Mono-S units) and IFCC (mmol/mol)
  • Reporting of HbA1c results as Estimated Average Glucose values* in the same units (mg/dL) that patients’ home glucose meters display
  • HbA1c patient trending graphs can be viewed or printed

Detect early kidney disease
  • Albumin, Creatinine, and Albumin-to-Creatinine (A:C) ratio from a urine specimen in 7 minutes to report a quantitative protein status with automatic creatinine adjustment
  • Onboard GFR calculator indexes kidney function

Improve workflow in the office or clinic
  • Self-contained cartridges facilitate easy, walkaway operation after sample loading
  • No sample or reagent preparation required
  • Bar-code scanner for safer and faster patient/operator ID entry
  • Review results on-screen or generate a hard copy report to minimize transcription errors in the office
  • Convenient local storage of up to 4,000 onboard records with powerful sorting capabilities
  • Automatically upload results to a PC via a USB flash drive to reduce manual logging and save time
  • Minimal maintenance requirements with automatic reminders to alert you when maintenance is due

Fig. DCA vantage barcode

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Biomedical Engineer: Job and career guide

How to Become a Biomedical Engineer: Career Path Guide

If you want to become a biomedical engineer, you first need to determine if this career path is a good fit for you. If the following description sounds like you, then you’re probably well suited for a career as a biomedical engineer:

Those who become biomedical engineers typically have a keen interest in science, medicine and engineering. Becoming a biomedical engineer requires the ability to visualize complex processes, as well as excellent hand-eye coordination in order to work with specialized instrumentation.

A career as a biomedical engineer requires one to have excellent communication skills and an excellent attitude towards working with others. Biomedical engineers must also be extremely patient and persistent individuals, as the desired results of their work may not present themselves in a timely manner.

Below we've outlined what you'll need to begin a career as a biomedical engineer. We've also included helpful information for this career, such as job description, job duties, salary expectations, a list of possible employers and much more!

Biomedical Engineer Job Description

Biomedical engineers are responsible for designing, developing and evaluating biological health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation medical information systems and health care delivery systems. In order to effectively execute all functions of their jobs, biomedical engineers must apply knowledge of engineering, biology and biomechanical principles.

Biomedical Engineer Job Duties

• Confer with life scientists, chemists and medical scientists regarding the engineering aspects of the biological systems of animals and humans
• Design and develop equipment and technology to assist people with physical disabilities
• Maintain documentation relating to the service histories of biomedical equipment
• Use signal processing techniques to diagnose and interpret bioelectric data
• Evaluate certain aspects of biomedical equipment, such as safety and efficiency
• Advise and assist in the application of instrumentation in clinical environments
• Design and develop medical diagnostic and clinical instrumentation, equipment, and procedures

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Cell biologist: job, responsibility and career guide

How to Become a Cell Biologist: Career Guide

The earlier you can start preparing to become a cell biologist, the better. Planning out your career path while you are still in high school is a great idea if you can pull it off, but if you can’t it’s not a big deal, as there are many things you can do as a university or college student to get a head start on becoming a cell biologist.

How to make cell biology career preparations in high school

Taking courses in math, biology, physics and chemistry is a great way to get a head start on becoming a cell biologist. These courses will give you a solid understanding of the scientific principles applicable to cell biology.

Learn what cell biologists do: Speaking with cell biologists and related scientists can give you a great idea of what it’s like to work in a cell biology career. You can also speak with professionals in related occupations, such as doctors, dentists, pharmacists and veterinarians in order to gain an idea of what other careers in science are like.

Choose a university or college to attend: Deciding where to go to college and what to study is a daunting and thorough task. Make it a little easier on yourself by talking to your school’s guidance counselor. They will be able to help you find schools that suit your professional ambitions and interests, as well as provide you with tips on which programs will be of interest to you.

Get a summer job: Getting a summer job, internship or volunteer experience in a laboratory, medical office, veterinarian’s office or in a similar setting as a high school student can be great exposure to what scientific professionals do.

Education Needed to Become a Cell Biologist

To become a cell biologist, you need to begin by earning a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology or a closely related field such as Botany or Biochemistry. Completing coursework in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, as well as extensive courses about cells, is a great way to build an educational foundation for your prospective career as a cell biologist. Depending on where your career ambitions and interests lie, you will likely need a graduate degree in cell biology to become a cell biologist.

Depending on the requirements of the employer, a Master’s degree in Cell Biology is typically sufficient for many applied research positions. To become a cell biologist who works in research and university teaching positions a PhD in Cell Biology is needed. Cell biologists must also complete continuing education throughout their careers in order to keep their skills current stay up to date with advancements in the field.

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DNA Analyst: Job, responsibilities and career guide

How to Become a DNA Analyst: Career Path Guide

To become a DNA analyst, you need to first determine if this is a suitable career path for you. Can you handle high-pressure and distressing work conditions? Are you skilled in science and have a patient, methodical approach to analyzing biological samples? If you’ve answered ‘yes’ to these questions, then you may be well suited for a career in this field.

Below we've outlined what you'll need to succeed in a career as a DNA analyst. We've also included helpful information for a DNA analyst career, such as job description, job duties, salary expectations, a list of possible employers and much more!

DNA Analyst Job Description

DNA analysts are responsible for preparing, analyzing tissue samples, and interpreting their results, in order to determine the genetic origins and properties of the sample. As many of the samples they examine are related to criminal evidence, DNA analysts must follow strict protocol when handling and storing the samples, and may be required to testify as expert witnesses on their findings. 

DNA Analyst Job Duties

• Compile tissue and organic samples such as hair follicles, skin cells, bodily fluids and others
• Isolate DNA strands within sample
• Unknown samples are compared against known samples in order to identify matches
• May be required to testify in court regarding findings
• Peer review the work of other DNA analysts; including re-testing samples and double-checking the findings of reports
• Oversee the proper storage of samples (while following very strict protocol)
• Attend seminars, lectures, and forensic functions for the purpose of continuous professional development

Education Needed to Become a DNA Analyst

To become a DNA analyst, you typically need a bachelor's degree related to biology, microbiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics or forensic sciences.

Coursework that allows you to have a complete understanding of each stage of DNA analysis, as well as be proficient with the procedures, techniques, applications, terms, and scientific principles of DNA analysis will help you break seamlessly into a career as a DNA analyst.

Coursework that is especially helpful includes microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases, gene development and biochemistry. Most university science programs include mandatory participation in laboratory work, which helps students gain experience with laboratory processes, procedures and equipment. 

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Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Laboratory manger : Job description and career guide

How To Become a Laboratory Manager: Career Guide

To become a laboratory manager (also known as a laboratory coordinator) you need a combination of having an interest in research, the ability to lead others, industry experience and training, the proper skill set, education, and knowing where to look for a job. Below we've outlined what you'll need to succeed in a career as a laboratory manager. We've also included helpful information for a laboratory manager career, such as job description, job duties, salary expectations, a list of possible employers and much more!

Education Needed to Become a Laboratory Manager

Typically, to become a laboratory manager, you first need to obtain a bachelor of science in the appropriate field. For example, those looking to work as a pharmaceutical lab manager should obtain an undergraduate degree in biochemistry or pharmacy.

Possible fields of study for aspiring lab managers may include, but is not limited to: botany, biology, chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacy and environmental science. Depending on the employer, you may need to have a graduate degree in the appropriate field in order to supervise the functioning of the lab. 

Laboratory Manager Job Description

A laboratory manager, also known as a senior lab technician and laboratory coordinator, is responsible for overseeing the work activities and personnel of a scientific laboratory. Laboratory managers are responsible for organizing and controlling all aspects of a laboratory environment.

Laboratory Manager Job Duties

• Schedule the work activities of laboratory employees
• Make risk assessments for the laboratory and ensure that the company's Health & Safety policy is adhered to
• Determine when the laboratory needs to be open for students or researchers
• Keep track of all laboratory equipment and materials
• May be required to create and follow a budget
• Act as an interface between management or the client and laboratory staff
• Ensure that any personnel using the laboratory adhere to safety policies and procedures
• Ensure the proper handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials

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Molecular Biologist: Job, responsibility and career guide

How to Become a Molecular Biologist: Career Path Guide

If you want to become a molecular biologist, you first need to determine if this career path is a good fit for you. Are you interested in how biological aspects of life forms get passed from generation to generation? Does the idea of performing research that can lead to advancements in medical treatments and other useful products appeal to you? If so, then you’re probably well suited for a career as a molecular biologist!

Below we've outlined what you'll need to succeed in a career as a molecular biologist. We've also included helpful information for this career, such as job description, job duties, salary expectations, a list of possible employers and much more!

Molecular Biologist Job Description

Molecular biologists examine the source of a person or animal’s genetics, variation in genes and genetic expressions. They must determine how biological traits are carried from one generation to another. Molecular biologists also analyze viruses and bacteria. They use this information to assist with the diagnosis and treatment of infections found in humans, plants and animals.

Molecular Biologist Job Duties

• Use specialized equipment such as thermocyclers and chromatograms
• Meticulously follow laboratory health and safety procedure to avoid having health adversely affected by chemicals and harmful biological substances
• Prepare and submit research grants to government agencies, private sponsors and other funding sources
• Prepare detailed reports of research findings
• Communicate findings with other professionals, as they are crucial for doctors and scientists to have an accurate source of information


Research Assistant: career path guide

How to Become a Research Assistant: Career Path Guide

If you want to become a research assistant in science, business, social science or any other area, you first need to determine if this career path is a good fit for you. If the following description sounds like you, then you’re probably well suited for a career as a research assistant:

Those who become research assistants are typically individuals who would either like to gain more research experience in their chosen field, advance their education in that field, or they may simply enjoy being part of a research team in the field of their interest. Regardless of their individual career ambitions, research assistants typically have a keen interest and an education in the area to which their work in research relates.

Research assistants must be comfortable working in an environment that relates to their field, such as a laboratory, library or an office setting. Research assistants must be trustworthy, punctual and very well organized individuals. They must also be comfortable taking directive from other research assistants and lead researchers, as well communicating their work to others.

Education Needed to Become a Research Assistant

The educational requirements for becoming a research assistant may vary by field of employment, and by specific employer.

Research Assistants in Academia

Research assistants that work in academia are likely students that have already earned a bachelor’s degree in an area that closely relates to their field of work, and are in the process of earning a graduate degree in that field. For example, a research assistant working in the psychology department of a university likely has a bachelor's degree in psychology and is earning a master's or doctoral degree.

Some research assistants may be students that are in the process of earning their bachelor’s degree, although receiving credit towards their degree, rather than receiving financial compensation, usually compensates these research assistants.

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Immunologist: job, responsibility and career guide

How to Become an Immunologist: Career Path Guide

If you want to become an immunologist, you first need to determine if this career path is a good fit for you. If the following description sounds like you, then you’re probably well suited for a career as an immunologist:

Those who become immunologists typically have a keen interest in the biological processes of the human body and its immune system. Immunologists that are passionate about understanding what is necessary for an immune system to function properly are typically those that are successful in their careers.  

Immunologists must enjoy conducting research, and they must be very comfortable expressing their professional opinion to other team members, such as those in research, management and public policy related positions.

In addition to an interest in the various elements of the profession, they must have an aptitude for academic work in the areas of molecular biology, immunology and epidemiology, as well as the intellectual and emotional stamina needed to complete the necessary education in these areas.

Immunologist Job Description

Immunologists are responsible for studying the functions of the body’s immune system for the purpose of developing new medical therapies, treatments and vaccines, and for finding ways to improve methods for treating different conditions.

In order to effectively develop these new products and methods, immunologists must investigate the development and effects of abnormal immune responses from the body, which are associated with a variety of conditions including autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, allergies and transplant rejection.


Virlogist: job, responsibility and career

Virologist Job description

Learn how to become a virologist. Research the job description, education requirements, and pros and cons of this career. Read on to find out how to start a career in virology.

What Virologist do: 

Virologists study viruses that affect humans, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi, and plants in community, clinical, agricultural, and natural environments. Virologists typically work in research or teaching, and many split their time between these two activities. Virologists may also work as science writers or pursue additional training to work in pharmaceutical business or law. Researchers may be employed by universities, government agencies, or health organizations. Some virologists work in industry research and develop new medications.
Medical doctors focusing on virology may carry out clinical research or work with patients afflicted with viruses. Virology researchers work under a broad range of issues including viral pathology, viral oncology, emerging viruses, virotherapy, viral replication, virus-cell interactions, and plant virology.
Because virologists work with infectious microorganisms, there is a small risk of illness, but preventative measures minimize that risk. Virologists work in office and laboratory settings, though a few may take samples in the field. Virologists, like other microbiologists, work on a full-time basis and usually collaborate with other scientists.

Career Requirements

Degree LevelM.D. and/or Ph.D. with postdoctoral training
Degree FieldVirology, molecular virology, viral oncology, immunology
LicensureVirologists with M.D. degrees must earn medical licenses
Experience3-5 years postdoctoral research experience
Key SkillsObservation, communication, analysis, critical thinking, reasoning, problem solving, perseverance, scientific and medical software, which may include: BD Biosciences CellQuest, Protein Explorer, Computer Service & Support CLS-2000 Laboratory System, Orchard Software Orchard Harvest LIS, TreeView, and Verity Software House ModFit LT, laboratory equipment and tools, which may include: air samplers or collectors, infrared spectrometers, analyzing equipment, and sterilizing equipment
Salary (2014)$187,199 was the median for various types of physicians and surgeons; $67,790 was the median for microbiologists
Sources: American Society for Virology, Virology doctoral and postdoctoral programs, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, ONet Online
Virus 3D imaginary structure

Parasitologist: Job ,responsibilites and career guide

Parasitologist: Job Description, Salary and Career Outlook

Parasitologists require significant formal education. Learn about the degree programs, job duties and salary expectations to see if this is the right career for you.

Job Description for Parasitologists

Parasitology is a branch of biology concerned with organisms that feed off of the plants or animals in which they live. Parasitologists conduct research in many fields because parasites occur in numerous environments and forms, from viruses and bacteria to insects and plants. Some of the primary research areas noted by the American Society of Parasitologists ( include:
  • Medicine and human disease
  • Food production
  • Wildlife management
  • Parasite evolution and taxonomy
  • Genetics
  • Vaccine development
The actual job duties for parasitologists vary by position and specialization. Much of their work, however, involves exploring the relationship between parasites and their hosts. Ecologists who work in systematic parasitology focus on the evolution of parasites in response to environmental changes.
In the medical arena, parasitologists try to better understand diseases in order to devise treatments and preventive methods. Agricultural parasitologists research the effect of parasites in plants and animals, paying particular attention to those that are food resources for humans. Wildlife parasitologists find ways to safeguard animals in their natural habitats. At the molecular level, biochemists examine the genetic structures of parasites.

Hematologist: Job, career and responsibilities

What Hematologist do :
Healthcare scientists (also known as clinical scientists) working in haematology are concerned with the study of:
  • blood;
  • blood-forming tissues;
  • blood-related disorders.
Their work is usually carried out in specialist departments of hospitals where they interpret test results to diagnose blood-based abnormalities.
They look at the size, structure, function and amount of different types of blood cells and produce reports and scientific analyses to show their findings.

Types of healthcare scientist, haematology

Some healthcare scientists specialising in haematology work in laboratories in biomedical roles, while others work in blood transfusion centres or in clinical roles where they have direct contact with patients.
They work with other clinical professionals within a multidisciplinary team to consult, and advise patients.
Doctors can also specialise in haematology but this is a very different career route.


Haematology is a constantly developing area of medicine and provides scope for clinical and laboratory experience. Work activities may involve:
  • receiving and preparing blood samples for analysis;
  • analysing blood samples using computer-aided and manual techniques;
  • reviewing initial data that reveals, for example, white or red blood cell abnormalities;
  • making decisions on further haematological analysis;
  • liaising with other medical professionals to discuss patient treatment plans;
  • prescribing specific types of treatment for individual patients;
  • cross-matching blood for use in transfusions;
  • investigating the biochemistry of blood clotting;
  • producing quantitative data in the form of reports and providing key information to medical staff about a patient's condition;
  • assisting colleagues in the interpretation of test results;
  • selecting appropriate techniques for different types of haematological analysis;
  • maintaining accurate and detailed records.
Healthcare scientists at more senior levels may perform additional activities such as:
  • teaching or training medical students and other hospital staff, e.g. nursing and portering staff;
  • applying for and managing departmental and/or laboratory finances and resources;
  • taking responsibility for working towards targets;
  • liaising with haematology colleagues on a regional or national basis.
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Friday, April 15, 2016

Protein estimation : Qualitative and quantitative

Proteins are the most abundant biomolecules, constituting more than 50% of the dry weight of the cell. They are known to perform many different biological functions.  Qualitative and quantitative estimation of proteins in biological fluids is based on the physico-chemical properties of proteins.


In each type of protein, the three dimensional structure is essential for its biological function.  A protein in the biologically active form is termed as the native protein and the native state is called “optimum” state. The disruption of the three dimensional structure is called denaturation.  On denaturation, the primary structure remains intact.  It is an all or none phenomenon and does not cause any alteration in the quantity of protein present.


Following are the major changes involved in denaturation:
1.       Increase in the viscosity due to uncoiling
2.       Change in the isoelectric pH
3.       Changes in the properties of solubilization and crystallization
4.       Loss of biological activity.

Fig. Test tube showing Biuret test positive

GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay: How it works

GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is a rapid diagnosis test of Tuberculosis (TB) and drug resistance.  It is revolutionizing TB control with aids in prompt diagnosis and treatment (selection of appropriate TB regimen).
GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is a nucleic acid amplification (NAA) test which simultaneously detects DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and resistance to rifampin (RIF) (i.e. mutation of the rpoB gene) in less than 2 hours. In comparison, standard cultures can take 2 to 6 weeks for MTBC to grow and conventional drug resistance tests can add 3 more weeks.
This system integrates and automates sample processing, nucleic acid amplification, and detection of the target sequences.
Fig. Gene Xpert box

What is colorimetry: Principle and applications

When light is passed through a coloured solution, certain wavelengths are selectively absorbed giving a plot of the absorption spectrum of the compound in solution. The wavelength at which maximum absorption is called the absorption maximum (λmax) of that compound. The light that is not absorbed is transmitted through the solution and gives the solution its colour.

Photometric instruments measure transmittance, which is defined as follows:

                                 Intensity of the emergent (or transmitted) light         Ie
Transmittance (T)= ---------------------------------------------------------------- = ------
                                               Intensity of the incident light                         Io

Transmittance is usually expressed on a range of 0 to 100%.

Colorimetry priniciple

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